Chapter 4 Quizzes: Self Activities Chapter Cum. Videos   Movies    Words   Appendix    Summary   Art    Art 

Unit 1: The Chemistry of Life Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life Review
  1. Living organisms are made up of compounds based mostly on the element carbon. which has valence electrons, and can form four covalent bonds with many atoms.
  2. Hydrocarbons such as and consist of only and .
  3. are molecules with the same molecular formula but different .
    • isomers differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms.
    • isomers differ in arrangements around a bond.
    • are mirror images of each other, centered around an carbon.
  4. groups are the chemically reactive groups of atoms that give molecules distinctive chemical properties.
    • The hydroxyl group (–OH) is , helping molecules such as ethanol and carbohydrates dissolve in .
    • The carbonyl group (C=O) is slightly polar and can be either at the end of a carbon skeleton ( ) or within the skeleton ( ).
    • The carboxyl group (-COOH) is found in carboxylic acids. The hydrogen of this group can dissociate, making such molecules weak .
    • The amino group (-NH2) can accept a proton (H+), thereby acting as a .
    • The sulfhydryl group (-SH) helps stabilize the structure of some proteins.
    • The phosphate group (-OPO32-) can transfer energy between molecules. Adenosine Tri-Phosphate ( ) is an important source of energy for cellular processes.

Chapter 5 Quizzes: Self Activities Chapter Cum. Videos   Movies    Words   Appendix    Summary   Art    Art 

Unit 1: The Chemistry of Life The Structure and Function of Macromolecules Review
  1. Macromolecules are polymers that are made from linking building blocks ( ) with bonds by , and can disassemble by .
  2. Carbohydrates include and serve as fuel and building material.
  3. are mostly neutral and thus are .
  4. Proteins consist of one or more chains, which are polymers of amino acids.
  5. Nucleic acid polymers called are made of monomers.
    • DNA is usually composed of two polynucleotide strands wound around each other in a helix.
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