Bio1151b Chapter 4 Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life
  1. Living organisms are made up of          compounds based mostly on the element carbon. which has       valence electrons, and can form four covalent bonds with many atoms.
  2. Hydrocarbons such as       and         consist of only         and           .
  3.          are molecules with the same molecular formula but different             .
    •             isomers differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms.
    •            isomers differ in          arrangements around a         bond.
    •              are mirror images of each other, centered around an             carbon.
  4.             groups are the chemically reactive groups of atoms that give          molecules distinctive chemical properties.
    • The hydroxyl group (ľOH) is        , helping molecules such as ethanol and carbohydrates dissolve in        .
    • The carbonyl group (C=O) is slightly polar and can be either at the end of a carbon skeleton (           ) or within the skeleton (         ).
    • The carboxyl group (-COOH) is found in carboxylic acids. The hydrogen of this group can dissociate, making such molecules weak        .
    • The amino group (-NH2) can accept a proton (H+), thereby acting as a       .
    • The sulfhydryl group (-SH) helps stabilize the structure of some proteins.
    • The phosphate group (-OPO32-) can transfer energy between molecules. Adenosine Tri-Phosphate (      ) is an important source of energy for cellular processes.
Bio1151b Chapter 5 The Structure and Function of Macromolecules
  1. Macromolecules are polymers that are made from linking building blocks (           ) with           bonds by              , and can disassemble by             .
  2. Carbohydrates include         and serve as fuel and building material.
  3.         are mostly neutral               and thus are              .
    • Fats can be            with no double bonds, or              with double bonds.
    • Two important classes of lipids in cells are phospholipids and steroids.
  4. Proteins consist of one or more              chains, which are polymers of amino acids.
    • Amino acids are linked by          bonds to form the          structure of proteins.
    • Most proteins fold into a specific               defined by its            structure,           structure, and             structure.
    • An         is a protein that acts as a           , speeding up chemical reactions.
  5. Nucleic acid polymers called                  are made of             monomers.
    • DNA is usually composed of two polynucleotide strands wound around each other in a         helix.