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Unit 3: Genetics From Gene to Protein Review
  1. A major function of DNA is to direct the synthesis of in two steps: and .
  2. In prokaryotes, transcription and translation take place simultaneously. In eukaryotes, an intermediate step of RNA is needed due to the presence of the .
  3. Transcription has three stages: initiation, elongation. and termination.
  4. In eukaryotes, the "pre-mRNA" requires modification before it can be used in translation.
    • The 5' end receives a modified nucleotide , and the 3' end gets a tail.
    • are removed from the pre-mRNA and its are spliced together.
  5. The mRNA exits the nucleus, and translation takes place on .
  6. are changes in the DNA of a cell which may lead to an abnormal .
    • mutations are changes in one base pair of a gene.
    • A base-pair mutation changes one pair of nucleotides.
    • Insertions and deletions of nucleotide pairs may produce mutations.
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