Chapter 34 Quizzes: Self Activities Chapter Cum. Videos   Movies    Words   Appendix    Summary   Art    Art 

Unit 5: The Evolutionary History of Diversity Vertebrates Review
  1. Vertebrates possess , and are a subphylum of phylum .
  2. Craniates are chordates that have a . Class (hagfishes ) are jawless marine craniates that have derived from the notochord.
  3. are craniates that have a , made of vertebrae.
  4. are vertebrates that have that evolved from skeletal supports of the pharyngeal clefts. Aquatic gnathostomes have a line.
  5. Class includes sharks and rays with a skeleton made of .
  6. are the bony fish with a endoskeleton.
  7. Class are ray-finned fishes. Class are lobe-finned fishes that include coelacanths, lungfishes, and .
  8. Tetrapods are gnathostomes that have limbs, and evolved from lobe-finned fish whose fins developed into limbs adapted for terrestrial life.
  9. Class have moist skin that complements lungs in exchange, and undergo from aquatic larva into a terrestrial adult.
  10. There are orders: are salamanders, are frogs and toads, and are caecilians.
  11. are tetrapods that have an egg adapted for terrestrial life. Reptiles lay eggs. Living reptiles include lizards, snakes, turtles, crocodilians, and birds.
  12. Mammalia are amniotes that have and produce from glands.
    • Monotremes are the only mammals that lay . All other mammals are placental , which include and .
    • Marsupials are born early and complete embryonic development within a maternal pouch called .
  13. Eutherians are mammals that complete their embryonic development within a , joined to the mother by the placenta.
  14. Primates have opposable adapted for , and include lemurs, tarsiers, monkeys, and hominoids called .
  15. Hominids originated in about 6-7 million years ago. was an early hominid that walked upright.
    • The earliest species in our genus Homo was Homo (“handy man”), who made tools.
    • Homo was the first fully bipedal, large-brained hominid.
    • Homo erectus was the first hominid to leave Africa.
    • Homo neanderthalensis became extinct a few thousand years after the arrival of humans (Homo ).
  16. Homo sapiens are hominoids with a large capable of making, symbolic thought and . We appeared in 160,000 years ago.

Chapter 27 Quizzes: Self Activities Chapter Cum. Videos   Movies    Words   Appendix    Summary   Art    Art 

Unit 5: The Evolutionary History of Diversity Prokaryotes Review
  1. Most prokaryotes are microscopic, and can be found almost anywhere. The most common shapes are (cocci), (bacilli), and spirals.
  2. Many bacteria exhibit , the directional movement in response to a , by propelling themselves with .
  3. The prokaryotic genome is usually a circular ring of DNA located in a region; some also have smaller rings of DNA called .
  4. Prokaryotic cells lack . The cell wall of many prokaryotes is covered by a protective , and many also form in harsh conditions. Review.
  5. Response to stain classified bacterial species into two groups based on amount of in the cell : gram- and gram- .
  6. Molecular analysis has now revealed several among the gram – negative prokaryotes, while another group is now assigned its own domain of .
  7. Prokaryotes play crucial roles in the biosphere.
    • Most are and recycle nutrients in the ecosystem.
    • Some are nitrogen and convert atmospheric (N2) to an organic form such as (NH3) that can be used by other organisms.
    • Cyanobacteria are and release oxygen for aerobic organisms to use.
    • In the cyanobacterium Anabaena, cells and -fixing cells exchange metabolic products in a cooperative .
  8. Some prokaryotes are human pathogens, such as the bacterium that causes Lyme disease. Pathogenic prokaryotes release two types of .
    • are secreted , such as those that cause anthrax and cholera.
    • are lipopolysaccharide components of some bacterial and released only when the bacteria, such as Salmonella which causes typhoid fever, .
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