Chapter 19 Quizzes: Self Activities Chapter Cum. Videos   Movies    Words   Appendix    Summary   Art    Art 

Unit 3: Genetics Eukaryotic Genomes Review
  1. Eukaryotic DNA is packaged with protein into .
    • proteins bind to DNA in a 10-nm fiber of "beads" called .
    • The nucleosomes are packed to form a fiber.
    • The 30-nm fiber forms looped domains, making up a fiber.
    • During mitosis, the looped domains coil and fold, forming the chromosome.
  2. Cells in most multicellular organisms undergo driven by differential gene , which can be regulated at several stages.
  3. Chromatin changes: acetylation of "tails" loosens the configuration of chromatin and enhances by making DNA more accessible to enzymes.
  4. Transcription control: many genes contain control elements such as and that can stimulate transcription.
  5. RNA Processing: different molecules can be produced from the same primary transcript, in a process called alternative RNA .
  6. mRNA Degradation: single-stranded (miRNAs) can lead to degradation of an mRNA or block its translation, thus limiting its life span.
  7. Protein processing and degradation: protein complexes called degrade proteins by binding to proteins tagged by and digesting them.
    Overview: Control of Gene Expression
    Review: Control of Gene Expression

Chapter 20 Quizzes: Self Activities Chapter Cum. Videos   Movies    Words   Appendix    Summary   Art    Art 

Unit 3: Genetics DNA Technology and Genomics Review
  1. DNA cloning (making copies of a DNA segment) often makes use of a bacterial .
  2. Bacterial enzymes can be used to make DNA, which can then be cloned and stored in genomic libraries.
  3. Clones carrying the gene of interest can be identified by nucleic acid , using a radioactively labeled nucleic acid .
  4. The polymerase reaction (PCR) can make copies of a segment of DNA in .
  5. Restriction fragment can detect differences in DNA by using gel electrophoresis to separate restriction fragments of different lengths.
  6. DNA fragments can also be identified by Southern and detected by .
  7. These technologies can be used as a DNA tool.
  8. Sequencing, or , entire genomes of an organisms, such as done in the Human Project, can be approached in three stages.
    1. Start with a rough map of some genes through techniques such as fluorescence in situ (FISH).
    2. Construct a map of several thousand genetic spaced throughout each of the based on frequencies.
    3. Construct a map by cutting DNA into fragments and arranging them in order by identifying overlaps.
    4. Short DNA fragments can be sequenced by the chain-termination method.
  9. An alternative approach starts with the of random DNA fragments, and assembling the large number of overlapping sequences with computer software.
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