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Unit 3: Genetics The Genetics of Viruses and Bacteria Review
  1. Prokaryotes and their viruses ( or phages) are smaller and simpler then eukaryotes.
  2. Viruses are intracellular parasites and can reproduce only within cells, using the host's enzymes, ribosomes, and other molecules to synthesize progeny viruses.
  3. Phages go through two alternative mechanisms: the cycle of a virulent phage and the cycle of a temperate phage.
  4. Animal viruses include RNA viruses, some of which are use such as HIV that contain their own transcriptase.
  5. Bacterial cells divide by fission, an asexual process that produces two genetically identical cells.
  6. Genetic recombination in bacteria occurs in three processes: , , and .
    • Transformation is the alteration of a bacterial cell's DNA by the uptake of naked, foreign from the surrounding environment.
    • Transduction is the transfer of bacterial from one host cell to another through .
    • Conjugation is the direct transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells joined by sex .
  7. Bacterial genes are often clustered into and regulated by a repressible or inducible ("on-off" switch) and a that binds RNA polymerase.
  8. The lac operon is also subject to positive control by an such as catabolite activator protein working with the regulatory molecule cyclic AMP.
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