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Unit 3: Genetics The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance Review
  1. Mendel's laws of and independent can be explained by the theory of inheritance.
  2. Chromosomes undergo and independent during meiosis.
  3. Thomas Hunt Morgan's experiments with fruit flies ( ) showed that the eye-color is sex-linked and located on the chromosome.
    • A dihybrid cross with two phenotypes yielded a F1 generation with only the phenotypes. A then yielded a F2 generation with all 4 phenotypes.
    • The small number of offspring with phenotypes implied that the linkage can be broken due to over and genetic .
  4. In humans and other mammals, the sex chromosomes and determine an organism's gender. X-linked disorders include color blindness, , Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
  5. Sex-linked disorders exhibit peculiar inheritance patterns.
    • Fathers usually pass a recessive allele to his as a .
    • The carrier has a 50% chance of passing the disease to her .
    • If the carrier marries an affected male, of the offspring will have the disorder.
  6. occurs when homologous chromosomes do not separate normally in meiosis.
  7. In mammalian females, one of the two X chromosomes in each cell is randomly during embryonic development and can be seen as a compact body.
  8. A female heterozygous for an X-resident gene may show phenotype.
  9. Chromosome damage includes , duplication, inversion, and .
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