Chapter 12 Quizzes: Self Activities Chapter Cum. Videos   Movies    Words   Appendix    Summary   Art    Art 

Unit 2: The Cell The Cell Cycle Review
  1. The continuity of life is based upon cell , the reproduction of cells. Cell division takes place in a sequence of events called the cell .
  2. Cell division is asexual and results in identical cells; each of which receives an exact copy of the genetic material, , from its "parent".
  3. Prokaryotes reproduce by a type of cell division called fission, where the DNA is , and then the two daughter DNA strands actively move apart.
  4. Eukaryotic DNA is packaged into , a complex of and that condenses into during cell division.
  5. cells have sets of chromosomes and reproduce asexually by , while (sex cells) have set of chromosomes and reproduce by .
  6. The cell cycle consists of an and a phase.
  7. Interphase can be divided into subphases , , and .
  8. The mitotic phase consists of , the division of the nucleus, and , the division of the cytoplasm.
    • Mitosis consists of 5 phases, or stages: 1) , 2) , 3) , 4) , 5) .
    • In , chromatin condense into visible , and the mitotic arises from the and is made of .
    • In , the nuclear envelope breaks down, and microtubules attach to the of chromosomes.
    • In , the microtubules move the chromosomes to the , or equatorial, plate.
    • In , sister separate, and move along the kinetochore toward opposite ends of the cell.
    • In , genetically identical daughter form at opposite ends of the cell.
    • Cytokinesis:
      • In animal cells, a furrow forms, and a ring of splits the cell.
      • In plant cells, a cell , fused from , grows at the equator, then new cell form between the daughter cells.
    Review: Mitosis and Cytokinesis Animation

Chapter 13 Quizzes: Self Activities Chapter Cum. Videos   Movies    Words   Appendix    Summary   Art    Art 

Unit 3: Genetics Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Review
  1. All living organisms can reproduce, and transmit from one generation to the next, with variation.
  2. The units of heredity are segments of called . Each gene is found at a region on a called its . An organism's total genes is its .
  3. In reproduction, one parent produces genetically offspring by or fission.
  4. In reproduction, two parents produce offspring that have unique combinations of inherited from each parent.
  5. A is an ordered, visual representation of the in a cell.
  6. In humans, each cell has chromosomes made up of two sets, with one set coming from each parent.
    • 44 of these are pairs of chromosomes, or , and have the same ; each of the pair comes from each of the parents of the individual.
    • The other two chromosomes are chromosomes, called X and Y, which determine the gender of the individual. Cells having a full complement of chromosomes are .
    • Each chromosome consists of two identical sister , attached to the .
  7. are the sex cells involved in reproduction, and are , containing only one set of chromosomes.
  8. Gametes are produced from cells in organs called by meiosis.
  9. occurs when a sperm fuses with an ovum, forming a diploid , which grows and develops into an adult organism.
  10. Since meiosis reduces the number of chromosome sets from to , two cellular divisions are required.
  11. Meiosis is the chromosome division, and meiosis produces haploid daughter cells.
  12. Sexual reproduction produces genetic by several mechanisms: independent , crossing , and random fertilization.
  13. The tremendous genetic variation made possible by meiosis and reproduction provides raw material for evolution by selection.
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