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Unit 2: The Cell Cell Communication Review
  1. Cell-to-cell communication is essential for organisms. Animal cells communicate over short distances by signaling and signaling.
  2. Both plants and animals use for long-distance signaling.
  3. Cell signaling comprises three stages: , , and .
  4. In reception, a molecule binds to a protein, causing it to change shape.
    • Signal molecules that are small or , such as hormones, can cross the plasma membrane and bind receptors.
    • Other molecules transmit signals via plasma membrane receptors: -linked receptors, receptor kinases, and channel receptors.
  5. In transduction, signals are relayed from receptors to molecules, as in a cascade.
    • The energy molecule is involved in steps where protein and dephosphorylation occur, often involving change in a protein.
    • Second messengers are small -soluble molecules or ions, such as Cyclic AMP .
  6. Cellular response to a signal can include both and activity.
    • Multistep pathways may exhibit signal , where each protein in the pathway activates copies of the next component in the pathway.
    • Some responses involve turning genes on or off in the .
  7. Each cell has a unique combination of , , and proteins, allowing wide in their responses to different .
    Review: Build a Signaling Pathway.
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