Chapter 2 Quizzes: Self Activities Chapter Cum. Videos   Movies    Words   Appendix    Summary   Art    Art 

Unit 1: The Chemistry of Life The Chemical Context of Life Review
  1. Matter consists of chemical in pure form and in combinations called .
  2. Four elements make up 96% of living matter: (C), (H), (O), and (N).
  3. Each element is made of a single kind of . An atom is made of , , and .
  4. The number of an element is the number of in the nucleus. The number is the sum of protons plus neutrons.
  5. Electrons occupy different with different energy . The outermost, or , shell contains electrons.
  6. A bond is the of a pair of electrons between different atoms of a . These bonds are strong and stable.
  7. A covalent bond is the sharing of two pairs of valence electrons.
  8. Electronegativity is the attraction of an atom for . In a covalent bond the atoms have different electronegativities and share the electrons .
  9. In an bond one atom strips away from other atoms, creating atoms called .
  10. Ionic compounds are often called , which may form .
  11. Electronegativity can result in weak chemical bonds.
    • A bond forms from the attraction of charged regions of molecules.
    • interactions form when transiently charged regions of molecules attract each other.

Chapter 3 Quizzes: Self Activities Chapter Cum. Videos   Movies    Words   Appendix    Summary   Art    Art 

Unit 1: The Chemistry of Life Water and the Fitness of the Environment Review
  1. is the biological medium here on Earth.
  2. Water is a molecule, and its numerous bonds result in unique properties.
    • Weak bonding of water molecules to each other leads to high among water molecules. Cohesion at the liquid surface leads to high tension.
    • Van der Waals forces between water and other molecules lead to strong , which can be seen in the meniscus in tubes, and in action in small tubes.
    • Water has high heat, and moderates nearby and ground temperatures.
    • Its high heat of leads to cooling of wet surfaces.
    • Solid water is less than liquid water and floats, allowing life under frozen surfaces.
    • Water is a versatile and can dissolve polar and ionic (hydrophilic) substances.
    • Hydrophilic substances too large to dissolve in water can form a , a stable suspension of fine particles in a liquid, such as in the of a cell.
  3. Water can dissociate into H+ (hydrogen) and OH- (hydroxide) .
    • The concentration of these ions is measured on the scale.
    • An has a high concentration of H+ ions, while a has a low concentration.
    • such as carbonic acid minimize changes in pH and consist of an pair that reversibly combines with hydrogen ions.
    • precipitation is caused primarily by the mixing of water vapor and and oxides produced by the combustion of fuels.
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