Bio1151b Chapter 34 Vertebrates
  1. Vertebrates possess            , and are a subphylum of phylum           .
  2. Craniates are chordates that have a       . Class         (hagfishes ) are jawless marine craniates that have            derived from the notochord.
  3.              are craniates that have a           , made of vertebrae.
  4.               are vertebrates that have       that evolved from skeletal supports of the pharyngeal clefts. Aquatic gnathostomes have a          line.
  5. Class                 includes sharks and rays with a skeleton made of            .
  6.               are the bony fish with a       endoskeleton.
  7. Class                 are ray-finned fishes. Class                are lobe-finned fishes that include coelacanths, lungfishes, and            .
  8. Tetrapods are gnathostomes that have       limbs, and evolved from lobe-finned fish whose fins developed into limbs adapted for terrestrial life.
  9. Class           have moist skin that complements lungs in      exchange, and undergo                from aquatic larva into a terrestrial adult.
  10. There are        orders:          are salamanders,        are frogs and toads, and        are caecilians.
  11.           are tetrapods that have an           egg adapted for terrestrial life. Reptiles lay          eggs. Living reptiles include lizards, snakes, turtles, crocodilians, and birds.
  12. Mammalia are amniotes that have       and produce       from          glands.
    • Monotremes are the only mammals that lay        . All other mammals are placental           , which include             and             .
    • Marsupials are born early and complete embryonic development within a maternal pouch called            .
  13. Eutherians are            mammals that complete their embryonic development within a         , joined to the mother by the placenta.
  14. Primates have opposable         adapted for           , and include lemurs, tarsiers, monkeys, and hominoids called       .
  15. Hominids originated in          about 6-7 million years ago.                   was an early hominid that walked upright.
    • The earliest species in our genus Homo was Homo          (“handy man”), who made        tools.
    • Homo           was the first fully bipedal, large-brained hominid.
    • Homo erectus was the first hominid to leave Africa.
    • Homo neanderthalensis became extinct a few thousand years after the arrival of humans (Homo          ).
  16. Homo sapiens are          hominoids with a large        capable of       making, symbolic thought and           . We appeared in         160,000 years ago.
Bio1151b Chapter 27 Prokaryotes
  1. Most prokaryotes are microscopic, and can be found almost anywhere. The most common shapes are          (cocci),       (bacilli), and spirals.
  2. Many bacteria exhibit        , the directional movement in response to a           , by propelling themselves with           .
  3. The prokaryotic genome is usually a circular ring of DNA located in a           region; some also have smaller rings of DNA called           .
  4. Prokaryotic cells lack             . The cell wall of many prokaryotes is covered by a protective          , and many also form             in harsh conditions. Review.
  5. Response to       stain classified bacterial species into two groups based on amount of                in the cell       : gram-           and gram-           .
  6. Molecular analysis has now revealed several         among the gram – negative prokaryotes, while another group is now assigned its own domain of          .
    • Many archaea live in extreme conditions:               thrive in hot environments,             live in saline environments, and              live in swamps.
    • Bacteria groups include the       - positive bacteria, cyanobacteria, and                 , which includes E. coli and the nitrogen fixing Rhizobium.
  7. Prokaryotes play crucial roles in the biosphere.
    • Most are              and recycle nutrients in the ecosystem.
    • Some are nitrogen         and convert atmospheric           (N2) to an organic form such as          (NH3) that can be used by other organisms.
    • Cyanobacteria are            and release oxygen for aerobic organisms to use.
    • In the cyanobacterium Anabaena,                 cells and           -fixing cells exchange metabolic products in a cooperative         .
  8. Some prokaryotes are human pathogens, such as the             bacterium that causes Lyme disease. Pathogenic prokaryotes release two types of         .
    •            are secreted           , such as those that cause anthrax and cholera.
    •             are lipopolysaccharide components of some bacterial            and released only when the bacteria, such as Salmonella which causes typhoid fever,      .