Bio1151b Chapter 29 Plant Diversity I: How Plants Colonized Land
  1. Land plants (kingdom          ) evolved from        algae, and are most closely related to the                . Five innovations among the Plantae are:
    • Apical            in root and shoot systems.
    • Alternation of              .
    • Walled spores produced in            .
    • Multicellular             which produce gametes.
    • Multicellular, dependent          .
  2. Bryophytes lack           tissue with three phyla of small herbaceous plants:             (Hepatophyta),            (Anthocerophyta), and         (Bryophyta ).
    • The large               produce gametes which fuse to yield small              .
    • Sporophytes produce haploid         which grow to become the               .
    • Male gametes are flagellated        that       short distances to fertilize the egg.
  3. Vascular plants evolved in the                period, and have life cycles with dominant              ; their              spores develop into bisexual               .
  4. Vascular plants possess specialized vascular tissues called        and         .
    • Xylem contains dead cells called            and         elements which carry water and minerals up from the       system through the        system.
    • Phloem includes living cells arranged into tubes that distribute         and other organic products from the         .
  5. Seedless vascular plants form two phyla.
    • Lycophyta includes       mosses,        mosses, and             .
    • Pterophyta includes        ,             , and        ferns and their relatives.
  6. Seedless vascular plants grew to great heights during the                period and may have led to global cooling.
Bio1151b Chapter 30 Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed Plants
  1. Seed plants are                : different kinds of spores produce reduced male and female               , which in turn produce          .
    • Megaspores develop into         which contain female gametophytes, microspores develop into         grains which contain male gametophytes.
    • When a pollen grain is transferred to the part of a plant containing the         , it can germinate and discharge two        into the female gametophyte within the ovule.
    • This process of                is called              and results in a       containing a sporophyte         .
    • The pollen eliminates the need to swim through water and allows for wide            by       or animal              .
  2. Gymnosperms (conifers) bear “naked”        , typically on        , and include four phyla: Cycadophyta, Gingkophyta, Gnetophyta, and Coniferophyta.
  3. The gymnosperm life cycle shows a dominant             generation,         grains transferring        to ovules, and the development of        from fertilized         .
  4. Angiosperms are seed plants that possess reproductive structures called          and         .
    • A flower is a specialized        with modified leaves.
    • A Fruit typically consists of a mature        with seeds. Fruits are adapted for seed            by       ,        , or animals to new locations.
  5. The angiosperm life cycle includes a         fertilization which produces a food-storing            in addition to the         .
  6. Most angiosperms are           and           , classified by the number of seed leaves.