Bio1151b Chapter 19 Eukaryotic Genomes
  1. Eukaryotic DNA is packaged with protein into            .
    •          proteins bind to DNA in a 10-nm fiber of "beads" called              .
    • The nucleosomes are packed to form a        fiber.
    • The 30-nm fiber forms looped domains, making up a         fiber.
    • During mitosis, the looped domains coil and fold, forming the            chromosome.
  2. Cells in most multicellular organisms undergo                  driven by differential gene             , which can be regulated at several stages.
  3. Chromatin changes: acetylation of          "tails" loosens the configuration of chromatin and enhances                by making DNA more accessible to enzymes.
  4. Transcription control: many genes contain control elements such as             and            that can stimulate transcription.
  5. RNA Processing: different       molecules can be produced from the same primary transcript, in a process called alternative RNA           .
  6. mRNA Degradation: single-stranded            (miRNAs) can lead to degradation of an mRNA or block its translation, thus limiting its life span.
  7. Protein processing and degradation: protein complexes called              degrade proteins by binding to proteins tagged by            and digesting them.
    Overview: Control of Gene Expression
    Review: Control of Gene Expression
Bio1151b Chapter 20 DNA Technology and Genomics
  1. DNA cloning (making copies of a DNA segment) often makes use of a bacterial          .
  2. Bacterial              enzymes can be used to make              DNA, which can then be cloned and stored in genomic libraries.
  3. Clones carrying the gene of interest can be identified by nucleic acid                , using a radioactively labeled nucleic acid        .
  4. The polymerase        reaction (PCR) can make copies of a segment of DNA in        .
  5. Restriction fragment           can detect differences in DNA            by using gel electrophoresis to separate restriction fragments of different lengths.
  6. DNA fragments can also be identified by Southern           and detected by                  .
  7. These technologies can be used as a DNA                 tool.
  8. Sequencing, or          , entire genomes of an organisms, such as done in the Human         Project, can be approached in three stages.
    1. Start with a rough map of some genes through techniques such as fluorescence in situ                (FISH).
    2. Construct a          map of several thousand genetic          spaced throughout each of the              based on                frequencies.
    3. Construct a           map by cutting DNA into fragments and arranging them in order by identifying overlaps.
    4. Short DNA fragments can be sequenced by the          chain-termination method.
  9. An alternative approach starts with the             of random DNA fragments, and assembling the large number of overlapping sequences with computer software.