Bio1151b Chapter 18 The Genetics of Viruses and Bacteria
  1. Prokaryotes and their viruses (                 or phages) are smaller and simpler then eukaryotes.
  2. Viruses are intracellular parasites and can reproduce only within       cells, using the host's enzymes, ribosomes, and other molecules to synthesize progeny viruses.
  3. Phages go through two alternative               mechanisms: the        cycle of a virulent phage and the            cycle of a temperate phage.
  4. Animal viruses include RNA viruses, some of which are               use such as HIV that contain their own          transcriptase.
  5. Bacterial cells divide by         fission, an asexual process that produces two genetically identical cells.
  6. Genetic recombination in bacteria occurs in three processes:                 ,               , and              .
    • Transformation is the alteration of a bacterial cell's DNA by the uptake of naked, foreign      from the surrounding environment.
    • Transduction is the transfer of bacterial        from one host cell to another through         .
    • Conjugation is the direct transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells joined by sex       .
  7. Bacterial genes are often clustered into          and regulated by a repressible or inducible           ("on-off" switch) and a           that binds RNA polymerase.
  8. The lac operon is also subject to positive control by an            such as catabolite activator protein working with the regulatory molecule cyclic AMP.