Bio1151b Chapter 12 The Cell Cycle
  1. The continuity of life is based upon cell           , the reproduction of cells. Cell division takes place in a sequence of events called the cell        .
  2. Cell division is asexual and results in              identical           cells; each of which receives an exact copy of the genetic material,      , from its "parent".
  3. Prokaryotes reproduce by a type of cell division called         fission, where the DNA is             , and then the two daughter DNA strands actively move apart.
  4. Eukaryotic DNA is packaged into            , a complex of      and          that condenses into              during cell division.
  5.          cells have    sets of chromosomes and reproduce asexually by          , while          (sex cells) have    set of chromosomes and reproduce by          .
  6. The cell cycle consists of an             and a          phase.
  7. Interphase can be divided into subphases     ,    , and     .
  8. The mitotic phase consists of          , the division of the nucleus, and              , the division of the cytoplasm.
    • Mitosis consists of 5 phases, or stages: 1)           , 2)               , 3)            , 4)           , 5)            .
    • In           , chromatin condense into visible              , and the mitotic          arises from the              and is made of               .
    • In               , the nuclear envelope breaks down, and          microtubules attach to the               of chromosomes.
    • In            , the          microtubules move the chromosomes to the            , or equatorial, plate.
    • In           , sister             separate, and move along the kinetochore               toward opposite ends of the cell.
    • In            , genetically identical daughter         form at opposite ends of the cell.
    • Cytokinesis:
      • In animal cells, a           furrow forms, and a              ring of                 splits the cell.
      • In plant cells, a cell        , fused from           , grows at the equator, then new cell        form between the daughter cells.
    Review: Mitosis and Cytokinesis Animation
Bio1151b Chapter 13 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles
  1. All living organisms can reproduce, and transmit         from one generation to the next, with variation.
  2. The units of heredity are segments of      called        . Each gene is found at a region on a             called its        . An organism's total genes is its         .
  3. In          reproduction, one parent produces genetically            offspring by          or         fission.
  4. In         reproduction, two parents produce offspring that have unique combinations of        inherited from each parent.
  5. A            is an ordered, visual representation of the              in a cell.
  6. In humans, each          cell has     chromosomes made up of two sets, with one set coming from each parent.
    • 44 of these are pairs of             chromosomes, or            , and have the same        ; each of the pair comes from each of the parents of the individual.
    • The other two chromosomes are      chromosomes, called X and Y, which determine the gender of the individual. Cells having a full complement of chromosomes are          .
    • Each chromosome consists of two identical sister             , attached to the             .
  7.          are the sex cells involved in         reproduction, and are          , containing only one set of chromosomes.
  8. Gametes are produced from       cells in organs called         by meiosis.
  9.                occurs when a sperm fuses with an ovum, forming a diploid         , which grows and develops into an adult organism.
  10. Since meiosis reduces the number of chromosome sets from          to          , two cellular divisions are required.
  11. Meiosis    is the chromosome            division, and meiosis     produces       haploid daughter cells.
  12. Sexual reproduction produces genetic            by several mechanisms: independent             , crossing       , and random fertilization.
  13. The tremendous genetic variation made possible by meiosis and         reproduction provides raw material for evolution by          selection.