Bio1151b Chapter 8 An Introduction to Metabolism
  1.             consists of all the           reactions of a living organism. These reactions are organized into metabolic           .
    •            pathways break down complex molecules into simpler compounds and          energy (exergonic).
    •           pathways build complicated molecules from simpler ones and          energy (endergonic).
  2.         is the ability to do       , and abides by the laws of physics called                 .
    • The        Law of Thermodynamics (               of energy) states that energy can be            from one form to another, but cannot be          or            .
      •            energy can be converted to          energy of a body in motion;           energy can be converted to          energy through metabolism.
    • The         Law of Thermodynamics states that the          , or disorder, of a system increases with every process.
  3. Living systems use         obtained from             to maintain order. In this process some of that energy is lost as       , increasing          .
  4.      (Adenosine TriPhosphate) is the cell's energy shuttle: energy is released when a terminal            bond is broken by             to produce Adenosine DiPhosphate (ADP).
  5. ATP drives chemical reactions for cellular work by                  , transferring a phosphate to other molecules, and is replenished by cellular (aerobic)              .
  6. An         is a            protein that speeds up a           reaction without being consumed by the reaction, and each enzyme functions within optimal temperature and pH ranges.
  7. The enzyme binds to its            at the protein's the         site, and facilitates the            reaction by lowering its             energy.