Bio1151b Chapter 1 Exploring Life
  1. Biology is the scientific study of       .
  2. All (most?) living organisms exhibit these properties:
    1. capture         from the environment, and          to that environment (including             of internal environments)
    2. grow and         
    3. reproduce using the hereditary material      (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)
    4.         through a process called             .
    5. a high level of        as organized in several hierarchical levels:
                   ,            ,            ,             ,           ,               ,        ,         ,       ,            ,           , and       .
  3. The cell is the basic unit for life, and contains the hereditary material      .
  4.             cells contain membrane–enclosed             , including a DNA –containing          .
  5.              cells lack such             .
  6.           is the branch of biology that names and classifies species according to a system of broader and broader groups, or       .
  7. Domain           (or Monera) and Domain          consist of prokaryotes.
  8. Domain Eukarya, the eukaryotes, includes the various          kingdoms and the kingdoms          ,        , and Animalia.
  9. Biologists use various forms of          to explore life.
    • In            science, scientists describe some aspect of the world and use            reasoning to draw general conclusions.
    • In                   science, scientists use            reasoning to form a general hypothesis to explain specific details of the world; this is the             method.
      • Observations are used to propose             that lead to              and then       the predictions by seeing if the predictions come true.
      • Hypotheses must be           and              : the test results should either          or         the hypothesis.
      • Experiments must be designed to test the effect of one           by testing, at the same time,          groups and               groups that vary in only one variable.
      • If            , the hypothesis gains strength and theoretical value. If           , the hypothesis is either modified or discarded.
  10. Case study: mimicry.
    • From discovery science: many poisonous animals have          ( aposematic ) coloration as a warning to predators.           species mimic poisonous ones.
    • Hypothesis: mimics benefit when            mistake them for harmful species (Henry Bates , 1862).
    • Prediction: mimicry should protect the king snake from            , but only in regions where coral snakes live.
    • 2001: experiment with poisonous eastern        snake and mimic scarlet       snake.
  11. Good hypotheses lead to new               , new questions, and new predictions; science progresses in a         of knowledge.