Bryophyte life cycle.

  1. Spores develop into haploid protonemata.

  2. Protonemata produce "buds" that undergo mitosis.

  3. Buds develop into gametophyte bearing antheridia or archegonia.

  4. Sperm swims to egg in archegonium.

  5. Fertilized diploid zygote develops into sporophyte embryo.

  6. Sporophyte emerges from the archegonium.

  7. The small sporophyte is dependent on the large gametophyte.

  8. Spores develop by meiosis in sporangium.

Review and exercise: